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TCP IP model | Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol


TCP / IP, (TCP IP model) a suite of communication protocols, is used to interconnect network devices on the Internet. Which is also a network model used in current Internet architecture. TCP / IP can also be used as a communication protocol in a private network (an intranet or an extranet). These protocols describe the speed of data between the source and the destination or the Internet. They also offer simple naming and addressing plans.

TCP IP model 

TCP / IP specifies how data is exchanged over the Internet by providing end-to-end communication, it recognizes how it should be broken into the packet, received at address, transmit, route and destination. should go. TCP / IP requires little central management, the ability to automatically recover from the failure of any device on the network, and is designed to make it reliable on the network.

Entire Internet Protocol Suite - A set of rules and procedures - which are commonly referred to as TCP / IP, although other sites are included.

Two main protocols do specific functions in the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP defines how applications can create channels of communication in a network. It also shows how a message is gathered in small packets before they are broadcasted on the Internet and re-assembled in the correct order at the destination address.

The IP determines how to address and route each packet to reach the right destination. To forward the message, each gateway computer on the network checks for this IP address.

1.Network Access Layer

Physical Network Layer
Physical network layer specifies the characteristics of the hardware used for the network. For example, the physical network layer specifies the physical characteristics of the communication media. The physical layer of TCP / IP describes the hardware standards such as IEEE 802.3, specifications for Ethernet network media and specifications for RS-232 standard pin connectors.
Data-Link Layer
The link layer is the lowest layer of the TCP / IP model, identifying the network protocol type of the data-link layer packet, the link layer combines physical and data link layers into one layer. In this example, TCP / IP Data-link layer also provides error control and "framing". Common protocols include Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP), IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11.

2.The Internet Layer

The internet layer is the next layer from the link layer and the internet layer is the second layer of the four-layer TCP / IP model. The OSI model is connected to the network layer. Functions include traffic routing, traffic control, fragmentation and a logical address. Pocket switching network relies on a connectionless internetwork layer. This layer is known as an Internet layer. Its work is to allow the hosts to put packets in any network and deliver them to the destination independently.

Common protocols include IP, ICMP, and IGMP.
The main protocols included in the Internet Layer are IP (Internet Protocol),
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol),
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) and
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol).

3.The Transport Layer

Transport Layer is the third layer of four-layer TCP / IP model, the transport layer is the next layer and is usually directly related to the same name layer in the OSI model and receipt, message segmentation, session multiplexing, traffic control, error detection and correction ( Resides), and message rendering functions. Common protocols include the main protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) included in the Transport Layer. The transport layer defines the state of the service and the position of connection to be used during the transport of the data.

4.The Application Layer

The application layer is the highest layer in the TCP / IP model and is present at the top of the transport layer, relating to the session, presentation and application layers of the OSI model. The application layer of the TCP / IP model is used to handle all process-to-process communication functions; While referring to the OSI model these functions were done through many different layers. In this, many different things are done by this layer, which includes session installation, maintenance and termination, character code translation, data conversion, compression and encryption, remote access, network management and electronic messaging.

Named Pipes, DNS, HTTP, SSL, FTP, NetBIOS, MIME, TLS, SSL, FTP, SMTP in common protocol.

       The application layer includes all high-level protocols such as DNS (Domain Naming System),
 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 
Telnet, SSH, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 
TFTP (Tribal File Transfer Protocol), 
SNMP (Simple Network Network Protocol) Are. , 
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), 
X Windows, RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) and many others.

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